Pursuit predation - Wikipedia
Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey For example, this predation risk is of prime importance in determining the time of .. "An overview of the relationships between mimicry and crypsis". Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and includes a wide variety of feeding methods; and some relationships that result in the prey's death are not generally called predation. In ecology, predation describes a relationship and actions between two creatures . A predator is an animal that hunts, catches and eats other animals.
Cooperative hunting In social predation, a group of predators cooperates to kill prey.
- Apex predator
- Sexual predator
- Predator–prey reversal
This makes it possible to kill creatures larger than those they could overpower singly; for example, hyenasand wolves collaborate to catch and kill herbivores as large as buffalo, and lions even hunt elephants. For example, when mixed flocks of birds forage, the birds in front flush out insects that are caught by the birds behind. Spinner dolphins form a circle around a school of fish and move inwards, concentrating the fish by a factor of Predators of different species sometimes cooperate to catch prey.
In coral reefswhen fish such as the grouper and coral trout spot prey that is inaccessible to them, they signal to giant moray eelsNapoleon wrasses or octopuses. These predators are able to access small crevices and flush out the prey.
Solitary predators have more chance of eating what they catch, at the price of increased expenditure of energy to catch it, and increased risk that the prey will escape. These include speed, agility, stealth, sharp senses, claws, teeth, filters, and suitable digestive systems. Many predators have acute hearing, and some such as echolocating bats hunt exclusively by active or passive use of sound.
Some predators such as snakes and fish-eating birds like herons and cormorants swallow their prey whole; some snakes can unhinge their jaws to allow them to swallow large prey, while fish-eating birds have long spear-like beaks that they use to stab and grip fast-moving and slippery prey. Lions can attack much larger prey, including elephants, but do so much less often. Predators are often highly specialized in their diet and hunting behaviour; for example, the Eurasian lynx only hunts small ungulates.
When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey.
This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey. Size may also act as a refuge for large prey. For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable.
Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat.
Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders. These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued. Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences.
Biological interaction - Wikipedia
They can try to avoid detection. They can detect predators and warn others of their presence. If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups. If they become a target, they can try to fend off the attack with defences such as armour, quills, unpalatability or mobbing; and they can escape an attack in progress by startling the predator, shedding body parts such as tails, or simply fleeing.
Porcupine spines are long, stiff, break at the tip, and are barbed to stick into a would-be predator. In contrast, the hedgehog 's short spines, which are modified hairs,  readily bend, and are barbed into the body, so they are not easily lost; they may be jabbed at an attacker.
Anti-predator adaptation - Wikipedia
Species that possess these stinging spines suffer less predation than larvae that lack them, and a predator, the paper waspchooses larvae without spines when given a choice.
Social animal Group living can decrease the risk of predation to the individual in a variety of ways,  as described below. Dilution effect[ edit ] A dilution effect is seen when animals living in a group "dilute" their risk of attack, each individual being just one of many in the group.
Hamilton proposed that group living evolved because it provides benefits to the individual rather than to the group as a whole, which becomes more conspicuous as it becomes larger.
One common example is the shoaling of fish. Experiments provide direct evidence for the decrease in individual attack rate seen with group living, for example in Camargue horses in Southern France. The horse-fly often attacks these horses, sucking blood and carrying diseases.Predator Prey Relationship Examples and Their Role in the Ecosystem
When the flies are most numerous, the horses gather in large groups, and individuals are indeed attacked less frequently. Experiments varying the group size of the water striders showed that the attack rate per individual water strider decreases as group size increases.
Individuals along the outer edges of the group are more at risk of being targeted by the predator. Selfish herd theory The selfish herd theory was proposed by W. Hamilton to explain why animals seek central positions in a group.