Biological interaction - Wikipedia
Synergism - both organisms benefit but relationship is not necessary for their survival; each supplies a nutrient required by the other under certain conditions. It describes a close relationship between two organisms from different species. Commensalism is a type of relationship where one of the organisms benefits. Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the .. Boucher, D. H. (editor) () The Biology of Mutualism: Ecology and .
Those animals established a commensal relationship with humans in which the animals benefited but the humans received little benefit or harm. Later, these animals developed closer social or economic bonds with humans and lead to a domestic relationship.
From this perspective, animal domestication is a coevolutionary process in which a population responds to selective pressure while adapting to a novel niche that includes another species with evolving behaviors. Dogs[ edit ] The dog was the first domesticated animal, and was domesticated and widely established across Eurasia before the end of the Pleistocenewell before the cultivation of crops or the domestication of other animals.
The wolves more likely drawn to human camps were the less-aggressive, subdominant pack members with lowered flight response, higher stress thresholds, and less wary around humans, and therefore better candidates for domestication. In contrast, cats may have become fully dependent on a commensal lifestyle before being domesticated by preying on other commensal animals, such as rats and mice, without any human provisioning.
Debate over the extent to which some wolves were commensal with humans prior to domestication stems from debate over the level of human intentionality in the domestication process, which remains untested. Although these two populations spend a period of the year in the same place, and though there was evidence of gene flow between them, the difference in prey—habitat specialization has been sufficient to maintain genetic and even coloration divergence.
Mutualism (biology) - Wikipedia
The skull shape, tooth wear, and isotopic signatures suggested these remains were derived from a population of specialist megafauna hunters and scavengers that became extinct while less specialized wolf ecotypes survived. Aspergillus and Staphylococcus Numerous genera of bacteria and fungi live on and in the human body as part of its natural flora.
The fungal genus Aspergillus is capable of living under considerable environmental stress, and thus is capable of colonising the upper gastrointestinal tract where relatively few examples of the body's gut flora can survive due to highly acidic or alkaline conditions produced by gastric acid and digestive juices. While Aspergillus normally produces no symptoms, in individuals who are immunocompromised or suffering from existing conditions such as tuberculosisa condition called aspergillosis can occur, in which populations of Aspergillus grow out of control.
Staphylococcus aureusa common bacterial species, is known best for its numerous pathogenic strains that can cause numerous illnesses and conditions. However, many strains of S. Moreover, almost all free-living animal species are hosts to parasites, often of more than one species.
Commensalism - Wikipedia
Mimicry Mimicry is a form of symbiosis in which a species adopts distinct characteristics of another species to alter its relationship dynamic with the species being mimicked, to its own advantage. Batesian mimicry is an exploitative three-party interaction where one species, the mimic, has evolved to mimic another, the model, to deceive a third, the dupe.
In terms of signalling theorythe mimic and model have evolved to send a signal; the dupe has evolved to receive it from the model. This is to the advantage of the mimic but to the detriment of both the model, whose protective signals are effectively weakened, and of the dupe, which is deprived of an edible prey.
For example, a wasp is a strongly-defended model, which signals with its conspicuous black and yellow coloration that it is an unprofitable prey to predators such as birds which hunt by sight; many hoverflies are Batesian mimics of wasps, and any bird that avoids these hoverflies is a dupe.
Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other.
Competition is where a larger or stronger organism deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource.
Antagonism occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion. An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree.
The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients. Throughout the process, the mature tree is unaffected by the sapling.